• The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and some foreign jurisdictions will generally

accept handwritten figures as final drawings for publication and issued patents if

they are clear and generally comply with the jurisdiction’s drawing requirements.

However, many clients prefer to have formal drawings prepared for their patents, because

hand drawings frequently look unprofessional and can make the invention harder

to defend.

  • Color drawings and color photographs are only granted by petition when the

USPTO has determined that this is the only practical medium by which to disclose

in a printed utility patent the subject matter to be patented. Standard black &

white cross-section patterns may be used to depict various colors, as shown in the

attached hatching table.

  • Shaded solid model renderings generally are not permitted and should be

converted to black and white line drawings, but may sometimes be accepted by the

USPTO if they are clear and have light shading.

  • Solid filled (i.e. black) areas in the drawings are generally not permitted.
  • As many drawings as needed to clearly convey invention should be provided.
  • In general, the elements in the drawings should be numbered with reference

numerals in the order they are introduced in the written description.

  • Start with reference numeral 100 and use only even numerals, so that lower or odd

numerals can be inserted later if needed.

  • Use the same reference numeral to show the same element in different views.
  • Use similar reference numerals to show similar or modified elements (e.g. 112, 112I,

112II or 112, 212, 312).

  • In general, put reference numerals outside of the object being drawn and connect

them to the elements being represented with witness lines.

  • Curved witness lines generally are less likely to be confused with the lines depicting

the object.

  • Preferably show each element in a non-hidden or fragmentary/broken-away view,

but a dashed witness line can be used to show a hidden element (i.e. an element

shown with dashed hidden lines). Exploded views convey more information per

figure than any other illustration.

  • Use separate figure numbers for each view, such as when the same object is being

shown in more than one state or from different perspectives. Also use separate

figure numbers for enlarged sections of a figure (see Fig. 1A and 1B in the attached

drawings, for example). Related figures preferably have related figure numbers,

such as Fig. 1A, 1B, 1C, etc.

  • All text should non-decorative sans serif and must be no smaller than 12pt. [or

0.125” high]

  • Reference numerals must be at least 14pt. [or 0.125″ high]
  • Underline the reference numeral and omit the witness line if the reference numeral

is placed on the surface it represents.

  • The figure number at the (“FIG.”) must be 17pt. [or 6mm], bold, and centered at the

bottom of the drawing.

  • Page numbers are centered at the top of the page 1.5″ from the top of the page

and 18.5pt. [or 6.5mm]. Do not bold page numbers.

  • Keep drawing and all reference numbers within the active drawing area (see

attached template sample) and all stray or irrelevant marks should be removed.

  • Witness lines to reference numbers should have 0.19mm [or 0.539pt] stroke weight.
  • Figures are drawn with lines of 0.343mm [or 0.972pt] stroke weight.
  • Cross hatching and shading lines are drawn with 0.1mm [or 0.283pt] stroke weight.
  • Phantom and hidden lines are 0.2mm [or 0.567pt] in weight and dashed according

to attached hatching table.

  • Arrowheads should only be used when referencing a section of the drawing or an

assembly as a whole.

  • Landscape drawings are drawn and labeled in landscape with the exception of

the page number which should remain centered at top of the page as if it were

vertical. This is so the page numbers in the packet will always be of the same